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Highlighting Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury

A serious and potentially fatal complication is acute haemolysis, which still occurs as a result of misdirected transfusion, caused by preventable clerical errors. There is now greater emphasis on the previously lesser known complications, such as bacterial contamination, more especially with platelet transfusions and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). TRALI appears to be under-reported in […]

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Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology of CVD – Comments on the Jupiter Study

Looking at targeted interventions in the prevention of heart disease, how do we tailor treatment to the patient and how do we get the right drug to the right patient at the right time? How can we better identify high-risk individuals, in order to ascertain who would benefit from statin therapy? It is argued that, […]

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Evidence for Why Tuberculosis Strikes HIV-positive Patients Early in the Disease

Tuberculosis (TB) affects people with HIV infection earlier than other opportunistic infections. This article discusses a preclinical study that suggests a biological mechanism for this observation. Impaired M. tuberculosis-mediated apoptosis in alveolar macrophages from HIV-positive persons The association of TB and HIV infection is well known. One of the curious observations is that patients become […]

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Do Vegetarian Diets Have Cardiac Benefits?

Vegetarian diets have been eaten by some groups for centuries for ethical reasons. In addition, many people in the world cannot afford to eat meat. More recently, vegetarian-type diets have been advocated as having the potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease. Vegans, who exclude eggs, milk and dairy products […]

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Current Developments in Emergency Medicine in SA

‘Mass Gathering and Disaster Medicine in the Developing World’ is the central theme of the second international emergency medicine (EM) congress, scheduled from 23-26 November at the Cape Town International conference Centre. The congress, hosted by the Emergency Medicine Society of SA (EMSSA) promises an exciting line up of speakers, both of local and international […]

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Bariatric Surgery Fails to Reduce Risk of a Myocardial Infarction in the Long Term

A long-term prospective study of bariatric surgery for weight loss in obese individuals showed the procedure has no effect on the rates of myocardial infarction (MI) when compared with individuals who underwent conventional care. While the rates of MI were equivalent in follow-up out to 20 years, investigators suggested there was a significant effect of […]

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Aggressive Prostate Cancer may be Linked to Trichomonas Sexually Transmitted Infection

The sexually transmitted infection, Trichomonas vaginalis, increases the risk of clinically- relevant, aggressive prostate cancer, researchers have affirmed. Men with antibodies to T. vaginalis were more than twice as likely to develop tumours that spread outside the prostate and that ultimately led to bony metastases or prostate cancer-specific death, Dr Jennifer Stark of the Harvard […]

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Treating the Common Cold Remains a Challenge

The common cold is a viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and is the leading cause of missed work and school days. Adults experience between two and four colds per year, and children have between six and 10 per year. The common cold is self-limiting and generally does not cause serious health conditions in otherwise healthy […]

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Interaction Between Malaria and HIV in Africa

Malaria and HIV/AIDS are two of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide, accounting for almost 9% of the total burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. There is good evidence of a biological interaction between them, but their combined impact on health systems is even more substantial, especially in Africa. This is often ignored. Evidence of […]

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Researchers Can’t Agree on Dialysis Dose

Critical care nephrology seems to be affected by conflicting results coming from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), in particular when dialysis dose is concerned. In an interesting ‘practice point’, Kellum (2007) commented, after an analysis of the most important studies on dialysis dose, that the best evidence supported the use of at least 35ml/kg/h for continuous […]

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